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Glossary

 

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Acolytes
An assistant to a clergy.

Adam
A neoclassical style of architecture and interior design popular from 1765 through 1790. Some common motifs of Adam designs included oval and octagonal shapes in addition to fans, wreaths and garlands. Some rugs also copied the ceilings (designed in Adam style) of the rooms for which they were commissioned in England. The main colors used in these designs were gray, light blue and jasper.

Afghanistan
Afghanistan is situated in South Asia. The capital of Afghanistan is Kabul. Afghanistan produces handmade rugs for both its local market and exportation; however, because of the political problems over the past twenty years, there is no current information about their exportation status. Many of the rugs are exported through neighboring countries such as Pakistan. Even without exact numbers, we know that Afghanistan does not produce nearly as many handmade rugs as Iran, India or China. Most rugs made in Afghanistan are Turkoman style.

Afshan
The Persian name for the all-over layout. Afshan means scattered.

Age
The age attribute specifies how old a rug is. There are three major timelines: Contemporary, Semi-antique and Antique.

Akbar, the Moghul Emperor
The third Moghul emperor of India (1556-1605). Rug weaving was introduced to India during Akbar's reign.

Albania
Albania is located in Southern Europe. The capital of Albania is Tirana. Today, Albania has a minor rug-producing industry, which began after World War II.

Algeria
Algeria is located in North Africa. Algeria gained its independence from France in 1965. The capital of Algeria is Algiers. Rugs from Algeria have not reached the Western market yet. They are mostly woven for local use or sold in bazaars to tourists.

All-over
A rug layout with no dominant or central design. The motifs on the rug are spread throughout the rug.

All-over Shah Abbasi
Shah Abbasi and islimi motifs in an all-over layout. See Shah Abbasi and islimi.

Aniline Dyes
The first synthetic dyes used in dyeing pile materials for rugs. The first aniline dye was developed in 1850s. These dyes faded rapidly with exposure to light and water. In early 1900s they were banned in Iran. Eventually they were replaced with Chrome synthetic dyes in all countries.

Antique
Rugs over 60 years old.

Arabesque
A motif consisting of intertwining vines, branches, leaves, or blossoms. These could be woven in a geometric or curvilinear pattern. The Islimi motif is a version of Arabesque.

Armenia
Armenia is located in Southwest Asia. Armenia gained its independence from the ex-Soviet Union in 1991. The capital of Armenia is Erevan. Armenia is near the Caucasus Mountains. That is the reason the styles which have originated from this area are called Caucasian. There is still a market for the older Caucasian rugs; however, since the new weavings have not adapted their colors and designs to the Western taste, they are now produced on a smaller scale.

Art Deco, Art Decoratif, Art Moderne, Modern Movement
A style of architecture and interior design popular in 1925-1940, characterized by geometric designs and bold colors.

Art Nouveau
A late 19th and early 20th century style of art, architecture, and decoration characterized by the representation of leaves and flowers with flowing lines.

Asymmetrical, Persian, or Senneh Knot
The asymmetrical knot is used in Iran, India, Turkey, Egypt and China. To form this knot, yarn is wrapped around one warp strand and then passed under the neighboring warp strand and brought back to the surface. With this type of knot a finer weave can be created.

Average
An average rug is a rug which may have undergone or may require some minor repairs such as a few warp strands that have been repaired or are in need of repair, or a few knots and fringes that have been replaced or are in need of replacement.

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is located in Southwest Asia. Azerbaijan gained its independence from the ex-Soviet Union in 1991. The capital of Azerbaijan is Baku (Baky). Azerbaijan is near the Caucasus Mountains. That is the reason the styles which have originated from this area are called Caucasian. There is still a market for the older Caucasian rugs; however, since the new productions have not adapted their colors and designs to the Western taste, they are now produced on a smaller scale.

Azurite
An azure blue vitreous mineral of basic copper carbonate {Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2} used as a source of blue dye.

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